Tuberculosis of Spine- Pott’s Disease

General Considerations: Tuberculosis: A systemic infectious disease, involving almost all organs of the body except- cardiac tissue, pancreas, Thyroid tissue. Infectious agent: Mycobacterium tuberculosis- human and bovine Atypical mycobacterium- Avian and others Mode of infection: Inhalation Ingestion Inoculation Pathology: Basic Pathology- Chronic granulomatous lesion Granuloma: Caseating, foreign body type. Langerhan’s type of giant cell. Tuberculosis […]

Lipid Lowering Agents

Hyperlipidemia: Hypelipidemias are a complex group of diseases that can be designated either primary or secondary depending on their causes. Primary: Result from single inherited gene defect or combination of genetic and environmental factor. Secondary: Result of more generalized metabolic disorder e.g. DM, excessive alcohol intake, hypothyroidism or primary billiary cirrhosis.   Drugs used in […]

Snoring and Sleep Apnoea

Related Definitions: Snoring: A noise generated as a result of partial upper airway obstruction during sleep. Apnoea: A period of no air flow at the nose or mouth for at least 10 seconds. Apnoea index (AI): The number of apnoeic episodes per hour. Hypopnoea: 50% or greater reduction in normal tidal volume. Sleep apnoea syndrome […]

Nasal Trauma and Facial Trauma

Nasal trauma is extremely common. Causes  include Assault, Road Traffic accident, Sports injury etc. Nasal Trauma may involve the following: Fracture of the nasal bones Soft tissue injury Fracture or dislocation of nasal septum Septal haematoma Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak Facial bone fracture Classification of Nasal Bone fracture: It is classified on a 1-3 scale […]

Genital Prolapse: Def, Type, Cause, Treatment, Complications

Genital Prolapse   Definition: When the genital organ descends from its normal position through the vagina is called genital prolapse.   Classification:   Vaginal Prolapse a)      Anterior wall Upper (cystocele) Lower (Urethrocele)   b)      Posterior wall Upper (Enterocele  in Pouch of Douglas with or without intestine) Lower ( Rectocele) Prolapse of perineal body   Uterine […]

Benign disease of Uterus: Fibroid / Leiomyoma

Benign disease of Uterus   Benign diseases: Leiomyoma Adenoma Angioma Fibroma   Specimen of Fibroid uterus:   Why? Identified by cervix Cervix is identified by external os Specimen is collected by Total abdominal hysterectomy cause Fallopian tube and ovary present in patient’s body.   Fibroid / Leiomyoma Arise from smooth muscle cell (myocyte) – myometrium […]

Bone Cyst

Introduction: It occurs mostly in children In the metaphysis of one of the long bones Occasionally in the small bones (adult carpus) It is not a tumour Heals spontaneously and seldom seen in adult It is discovered after pathological fracture or as an incidental finding on x-ray. Pathology It begins as a spherical lesion but […]

Abortion- Def, Type, Management

Abortion Definition : Expulsion or extraction from its mother of an embryo or fetus weighing 500gm or less when it is not capable of independent (WHO). Incidence : Probably over all incidence 10-20%. Etiology :   Genetic factors   Infection   Endocrine and metabolic factors   Immunological   Anatomical factors   Others Type of abortion […]